1675: German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) made the first use of the long s (∫) as a symbol of the integral in calculus.
2004: The Arabic-language news network Al Jazeera broadcast an excerpt from a video by Osama bin Laden (1957-2011) in which the terrorist leader admitted for the first time direct responsibility for the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks.
2012: Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast, killing 148 directly and 138 indirectly, leaving $70 billion in damages and causing major, extended power outages.
1534: English Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy making King Henry VIII (1491-1547) head of the English church, a role formerly held by the Pope.
1942: Lt. Tony Fasson (1913-1942), Able Seaman Colin Grazier (1920-1942) and canteen assistant Tommy Brown (1926-1945) from HMS Petard boarded U-559, retrieving material that would lead to the decryption of the German Enigma code.
1961: The Soviet Union detonated the 50-megaton Tsar Bomba, a hydrogen bomb, over Novaya Zemlya. It remains the largest explosive device ever detonated, nuclear or otherwise.
1963: The first Lamborghini car debuted in Sant’Agata Bolognese, Italy.
1974: Major League Baseball player Nolan Ryan (born 1947) threw the fastest recorded pitch, 100.9 mph, while on the California Angels.
1985: Space Shuttle Challenger lifted off for its final successful mission. (It exploded during takeoff on Jan. 28, 1986.)
1864: Nevada became the 36th state.
1892: The Sherlock Holmes detective stories by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) were published for the first time in book form as a collection of short stories. They had been published only in magazines.
1913: The Lincoln Highway was dedicated, becoming the first automobile highway across the United States. The 3,389-mile-long highway connects Times Square, New York City, to Lincoln Park, San Francisco.
1923: This was the first of 160 consecutive days of at least 100 degrees Fahrenheit at Marble Bar, Australia.
2013 Presidents Cup Golf, Muirfield Village GC: US wins for 5th successive time with an 18½–15½ victory over the International team
2014 John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser win the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2015 Nobel prize for Physics awarded to Takaaki Kajita (Japan) and Arthur McDonald (Canada) for work on neutrinos
2017 British writer Kazuo Ishiguro is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature
2017 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)
2017 Storm Nate kills at least 22 people passing through Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras
2017 Vegas Golden Knights make their NHL debut in Dallas, winning 2-1 over the Stars
2019 Tens of thousands of Hong Kong protesters march in defiance of a new ban on face masks.
996: The name “Austria” first appeared in print, in a deed, issued by Emperor Otto III (980-1002) to the Bishop of Freising (age unknown).
1939: The first rabbit born after artificial insemination was exhibited to the world.
1982: Honda became the first Asian automobile company to build cars in the United States with the opening of its factory in Marysville, Ohio. The Honda Accord became the first car produced there.
1993: The Maastricht Treaty took effect, formally establishing the European Union.
2001: The National Weather Service revised the winter wind-chill index, making it “colder.”
1734: Daniel Boone was born in what is now Kentucky. (Died 1820.)
1755: Marie Antoinette, queen of French King Louis XVI, was born in Austria. (Beheaded in 1793.)
1795: James Knox Polk, (11th U.S. president, 1845-1849), was born in Mecklenburg County, N.C. (Died 1849.)
1966: Born this day: actor Sean Kanan (General Hospital, The Bold and the Beautiful, The Young and the Restless, The Karate Kid Part III); director and screenwriter Tim Kirkman (Dear Jesse, Loggerheads; and actor David Schwimmer (L.A. Law, The Wonder Years, NYPD Blue, Band of Brothers).
1983: President Ronald Reagan (1911-2004) signed a bill creating Martin Luther King Jr. Day.
1953: Born this day: actress Kate Capshaw (Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom), and comedian Dennis Miller (Saturday Night Live).
1954: The first Godzilla movie was released in Japan.
1964: Residents of Washington D.C. were able to vote in a presidential election for the first time.
1918: Born this day: actors Art Carney (The Honeymooners, Harry and Tonto, died 2003), and Cameron Mitchell (Death of a Salesman, My Favorite Year, Matlock, Simon & Simon, Fantasy Island, died 1994).
1924: Democrat Nellie Tayloe Ross (1876-1977) of Wyoming was elected the first female governor in the United States. (She remains the only female governor of Wyoming.)
1944: Born this day: voice actress Linda Gary (Scooby-Doo and Scrappy-Doo, The Smurfs, died 1995), and singer Scherrie Payne (The Supremes).
1946: Born this day: former first lady Laura (Welch) Bush, and controversial gay photographer Robert Mapplethorpe (died 1989).
1950: Born this day: author Charles Frazier (Cold Mountain), and actress Markie Post (Night Court, The Fall Guy).
1952: The United States established the National Security Agency, or NSA.
1960: Dr. Jane Goodall (born 1934) observed chimpanzees creating tools, the first-ever observation in non-human animals, at the Kasakela Chimpanzee Community in Tanzania.
1961: Born this day: actor Ralph Macchio (Karate Kid series), and TV producer
Jeff Probst (Survivor).
1962: The last atmospheric nuclear test explosion conducted by the United States took place at 69,000 feet over Johnston Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.