1147: First historical record of Moscow, Russia.
1818: Congress adopted the flag of the United States with 13 red and white stripes and one star for each state (then 20). 1850: Los Angeles, Calif., was incorporated as a city.
1873: The Kennel Club was founded in London, the first and oldest official registry of purebred dogs in the world.
1887: Argonia, Kansas, elected Susanna M. Salter as the first female mayor in the United States.
1964: The Beatles occupied the top five positions on the Billboard Hot 100 pop chart.
1968: Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tenn., by white supremacist James Earl Ray.
1969: Dr. Denton Cooley implanted the first temporary artificial heart.
1973: The World Trade Center in New York was officially dedicated.
1975: Microsoft was founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque, N.M.
2007: NASA’s spacecraft Phoenix is launched.
1614: Native American Pocahontas married English colonist John Rolfe in Virginia.
1792: U.S. President George Washington exercised his authority to veto a bill, the first time this power was used in the United States.
1922: The American Birth Control League, forerunner of Planned Parenthood, was incorporated.
1923: Firestone Tire and Rubber Company began production of balloon tires.
1956: On the 100th anniversary of Booker T. Washington’s birth, the house where he was born in Franklin County, Va., was designated as the Booker T. Washington National Monument.
1961: My Fair Lady won an Academy Award for best picture.
1973: Mars 6 is launched from USSR.
1808: John Jacob Astor incorporated the American Fur Company that would eventually make him America’s first millionaire.
1841: John Tyler became the first U.S. vice president to ascend to the presidency, two days after President William Henry Harrison’s death.
1860: The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints—later renamed Community of Christ—was organized by Joseph Smith III and others at Amboy, Illinois.
1861: The first performance, in Leipzig, Germany, of 18-year-old Arthur Sullivan’s debut success, his suite of incidental music for The Tempest, led to a career that included the famous Gilbert and Sullivan operas.
1869: John Wesley Hyatt patented celluloid, an ivory substitute.
1893: The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was dedicated by Wilford Woodruff, the fourth president of the LDS church.
1896: In Athens, Greece, the opening of the first modern Olympic Games was celebrated, 1,500 years after the original games were banned by Roman Emperor Theodosius I.
1909: U.S. Navy Rear Adm. Robert Peary and Matthew Henson became the first people to reach the geographic North Pole.
1917: The United States declared war on Germany during World War I, known then as The Great War.
1924: A team of U.S. aviators commenced the first round-the-world flight, leaving from Seattle. The trip took 175 days and covered 27,553 miles.
1947: The first Tony Awards were presented for theatrical achievement at the Waldorf Astoria hotel in New York City.
1965: “Early Bird,” the first communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit, was launched at Cape Canaveral.
1974: The Swedish pop band ABBA won the Eurovision Song Contest with the song “Waterloo,” launching their international career.
2012: NASA’s Curiosity rover lands on the surface of Mars.
1788: American pioneers in the Northwest Territory arrived at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum rivers, establishing Marietta, Ohio, as the first permanent American settlement of the new United States in the Northwest Territory, and opening the westward expansion of the new country.
1827: English chemist John Walker sold the first friction match, which he had invented the previous year.
1933: Prohibition in the United States was repealed for beer of no more than 3.2 percent alcohol by weight, eight months before the ratification of the 21st amendment.
1940: Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) became the first African American to be depicted on a U.S. postage stamp.
1980: The United States severed relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran.
2008: The start of the Russo-Georgian War over the territory of South Ossetia.
1865: Workers digging a new water system in Durham, England, inadvertently freed a living toad from a solid block of magnesium limestone 25 feet below ground level. The cavity from which the toad was freed was no larger than its body. The creature lived for some time after that at the Hartlepool Museum.
1974: At Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium, Hank Aaron hit his 715th career home run to surpass Babe Ruth’s 39-year-old record.
2005: Over four million people attended the funeral of Pope John Paul II at Vatican City.
1585: The expedition organized by Sir Walter Raleigh departed England for Roanoke Island (now in North Carolina) to establish the ill-fated Roanoke Colony.
1682: Robert Cavelier de La Salle discovered the mouth of the Mississippi River, claimed it for France and named it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV.
1860: On his phonautograph machine, Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville made the oldest known recording of an audible human voice, himself singing the French folk tune Au clair de la lune.
1867: The U.S. Senate ratified by one vote a treaty to purchase Alaska from Russia.
1961: The Pacific Electric Railway in Los Angeles, once the largest electric railway in the world, ended operations, as the result of a conspiracy headed by General Motors to eliminate public train transportation in the U.S. and replace them with buses.
1965: The first indoor baseball game was played, with the opening of the Astrodome in Houston, Texas.
1967: The Boeing 737 made its maiden flight, piloted by Brien Wygle and Lew Wallick.
1969: The first British-built Concorde 002 made its maiden flight from Filton to RAF Fairford.
1973: Mars 7 is launched from USSR.
837: Halley’s Comet and Earth experienced their closest approach to one another with a separating distance of 3.2 million miles.
1849: Walter Hunt patented the first safety pin.
1866: The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) was founded in New York City by Henry Bergh.
1872: The first Arbor Day was celebrated in Nebraska.
1912: RMS Titanic set sail from Southampton, England, on her maiden and only voyage.
1916: The Professional Golfers’ Association of America (PGA) was created in New York City.
1925: The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald was first published in New York City.
1953: Warner Bros. premiered the first 3-D film from a major American studio, entitled House of Wax.
1970: Paul McCartney announced that he was leaving The Beatles for personal and professional reasons.
1990: The Magellan space probe reaches Venus.
2003: The highest temperature ever recorded in the Untied Kingdom, England was 101.3°F.
2014: At Six Flags America, 24 riders of Jokers Jinx were stuck for 5 hours in the middle of the ride. Nobody was injured, but the ride was closed the next day for investigation.