1654: Jacob Barsimson became the first Jewish immigrant to America when he arrived in New Amsterdam.
1902: Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. president to ride in an automobile. Cadillac Motor Co. was founded in Detroit.
1989: Nolan Ryan became the first Major League Baseball pitcher to record 5,000 strikeouts when he struck out Rickey Henderson.
2007: The ‘Storm’ botnet, created by the Storm worm, sent out a record 57 million emails in one day. The Texas Rangers routed the Baltimore Orioles 30-3, the most runs scored by a team in modern Major League Baseball history.
1904: The automobile tire chain was patented in the United States.
1923: The first mid-air refueling occurred, on a De Havilland DH-4B, and allowed the plane to set an endurance flight record of 37 hours.
1954: The C-130 Hercules transport aircraft had its first flight.
1966: The Lunar Orbiter I took the first photo of the earth from the moon’s orbit.
1973: A bank robbery gone wrong in Stockholm, Sweden, turned into a hostage crisis. Over the next five days, the hostages begin to sympathize with their captors, leading to the term “Stockholm syndrome.”
1990: Armenia declared its independence from the Soviet Union. West Germany and East Germany announced that they would reunite on Oct. 3. Tim Berners-Lee opened the World Wide Web to new users.
2011: A magnitude 5.8 earthquake occurred in Virginia, damaging monuments and structures in Washington D.C. and causing an estimated $200 million to $300 million damage. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown after the National Transitional Council forces took control of Bab al-Azizia compound during the Libyan civil war.
A.D. 79: Mount Vesuvius erupted, burying the Roman cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae under a layer of ash between 50 feet and 300 feet deep.
1456: The first Gutenberg Bible was printed.
1813: Massachusetts Gov. Caleb Strong (Federalist) proposed that the state secede from the United States because the federal government had failed to live up to the U.S. Constitution.
1891: Thomas Edison received a patent for the motion picture camera.
1909: Workers began pouring concrete for the Panama Canal.
1928: George H. Brown, 52, of Lampasas, Texas, died four hours after falling into a boiling hot spring in Yellowstone National Park.
1932: Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly non-stop across the United States, from Los Angeles to Newark, N.J.
1967: A group of hippies led by Abbie Hoffman disrupted trading at the New York Stock Exchange by throwing $1 bills from the viewing gallery, causing trading to cease as brokers scrambled for them.
1989: Cincinnati Reds manager Pete Rose was banned from baseball for gambling by Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti.
2006: The International Astronomical Union (IAU) redefined the term ‘planet’ such that Pluto is now considered a dwarf planet.
1609: Galileo Galilei demonstrated his telescope to Venetian lawmakers.
1875: Captain Matthew Webb became first person to swim across the English Channel, swimming from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in 22 hours.
1916: The U.S. National Park Service was created.
1933: Born this day: author Patrick F. McManus (A Fine and Pleasant Misery); saxophonist Wayne Shorter (Miles Davis Quintet, Weather Report); and actor Tom Skerritt (M*A*S*H, Alien, Top Gun, A River Runs Through It).
1958: Born this day: producer/director Tim Burton (Edward Scissorhands, The Nightmare Before Christmas); and actor Christian LeBlanc (The Young and the Restless).
1991: Linus Torvalds announced the first version of what would become the free Linux computer operating system.
1498: Michelangelo was commissioned by French Cardinal Jean de Bilhères to carve the Pietà.
1901: Born this day: Australian author Eleanor Dark (Prelude to Christopher, died 1985); Nazi SS officer Hans Kammler (declared dead 1945); singer Jimmy Rushing (Oklahoma City Blue Devils, died 1972); Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam (died 1987); Gen. Chen Yi, 2nd Foreign Minister of the People’s Republic of China (died 1972).
1920: The 19th Amendment to U.S. Constitution went into effect, giving women the right to vote.
1980: Three men headed by disgruntled gambler John Birges planted a bomb at Harvey’s Resort Hotel in Stateline, Nev., trying to extort $3 million from the owners because Birges had lost $750,000 there; the bomb was accidentally detonated by the bomb squad and destroyed much of the casino, although no one was injured because the building had been evacuated the day before. Born this day: actors Macaulay Culkin (Home Alone), and Chris Pine (Star Trek Into Darkness).
410: The Visigoths ended their three-day sack of Rome, signaling the demise of the Roman Empire.
1928: The Kellogg-Briand Pact, which outlawed war, was signed by the first 15 nations to do so. (Sixty-one nations ultimately signed on.)
1943: Born this day: Bob Kerrey, 35th governor of Nebraska, and actress Tuesday Weld (Looking for Mr. Goodbar, Once Upon a Time in America).
2000: Singer and songwriter Willie Nelson became the first entertainer in history to have a forest fire named after him; the “Willie” fire started near Red Lodge, Mont., while Nelson was performing a concert there; the fire was started by a motorcycle accident on the Beartooth Highway, and the town of Red Lodge was evacuated because of it.
1565: St. Augustine, Fla., was founded. (It remains the oldest continuously occupied European city in the continental United States.)
1833: Slavery was abolished in the United Kingdom.
1898: “Brad’s Drink,” a carbonated soft drink made by Caleb Bradham at his drugstore in New Bern, N.C., was renamed Pepsi-Cola.rancisco.