1775: The U.S. Marine Corps was founded at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia by Samuel Nicholas (1744-1790), considered to be the first Commandant of the Marine Corps.
1871: Welsh explorer Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904) located missing Scottish explorer and missionary Dr. David Livingstone (1813-1873) in Ujiji, near Lake Tanganyika, greeting him with the now immortal phrase, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
1951: Direct-dial, coast-to-coast telephone service in the United States began with the rollout of the North American Numbering Plan.
1958: Jeweler Harry Winston (1896-1978) of New York donated the Hope Diamond to the Smithsonian Institution.
2002: Seventy tornadoes were recorded in one day in the United States.
2006: The National Museum of the Marine Corps in Quantico, Virginia, was opened and dedicated by President George W. Bush (born 1946).
1750: The first college fraternity in what would become the United States, the F.H.C. Society (also known as the Flat Hat Club) was formed at Raleigh Tavern, Williamsburg, Va.
1804: Sacajawea (1788-1812) joined the Lewis and Clark expedition at Fort Mandan..
1921: The Tomb of the Unknowns was dedicated by President Warren G. Harding (1865-1923) at Arlington National Cemetery.
1926: The United States Numbered Highway System, including U.S. Route 66, was established.
1930: Albert Einstein (1879-1955) and Leó Szilárd (1898-1964) received patent number US1781541 for their invention, the Einstein refrigerator, which has no moving parts and requires only a heat source, such as a propane flame, to operate.
1951: Born this day: actor Bill Moseley (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2); U.S. savant Kim Peek (inspiration for Dustin Hoffman’s character in Rain Man, died 2009); and TV host Marc Summers, (Double Dare, Nickelodeon Family Double Dare).
1974: Born this day: actor Leonardo DiCaprio (Titanic, What’s Eating Gilbert Grape), and rapper Static Major (died 2008).
1439: Plymouth, England, became the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.
1602: Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548-1624) landed at, and named, San Diego, California.
1933: Scotsman Hugh Gray (age unknown) took the first known photos alleged to be of the Loch Ness Monster.
1956: The largest iceberg on record, 208 x 60 miles, was discovered near Antarctica by the USS Glacier.
1970: Born this day: notorious figure skater Tonya Harding, and child actor Harvey Spencer Stephens (young “Damien” in The Omen).
1980: NASA space probe Voyager I made its closest approach to Saturn and took the first ever close-up images of its rings.
1989: British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee (born 1955) sent the first successful communication on the World Wide Web, which he created.
1833: Thousands of meteors fell during a shower that lasted several hours over the East Coast of the United States.
1941: Born this day: Hobby Lobby founder David Green, and actor Dack Rambo (The Guns of Will Sonnett, All My Children, “Jack Ewing” on Dallas, Another World, died 1994).
1956: The U.S. Supreme Court declared Alabama laws requiring segregated buses illegal, ending the Montgomery Bus Boycott. 1967: Born this day: ABC talk show host Jimmy Kimmel (Jimmy Kimmel Live!); and actor Steve Zahn (Dallas Buyers Club, Diary of a Wimpy Kid movie series).
1982: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C.
1840: Impressionist painter Claude Monet was born in France (died 1926).
1910: The first instance of an airplane taking flight from a ship occurred when aviator Eugene Burton Ely (1886-1911) took off from a ship in Hampton Roads, Virginia, from a makeshift deck on the USS Birmingham in a Curtiss pusher.
1967: American physicist Theodore Maiman (1927-2007) received a patent for the world’s first practical, working laser.
1859: The first modern revival of the Olympic Games took place in Athens, Greece.
1914: Harry Turner (age unknown) became the first football player to die from game-related injuries in the Ohio League, the predecessor to the National Football League.
1926: The NBC radio network began broadcasting with 24 stations.
1939: President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) laid the cornerstone of the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C.
1951: Born this day: actress Beverly D’Angelo (National Lampoon’s Vacation, Coal Miner’s Daughter), and Scottish actor Billy McColl (Looking After Jo Jo, Pie in the Sky, died 2014).
1969: Dave Thomas (1932-2002) opened the first Wendy’s restaurant in Columbus, Ohio.
1971: Intel released the world’s first commercial single-chip microprocessor, the 4004.
1800: First Lady Abigail Smith Adams (born 1744) arrived for the first time in the nation’s new capital, Washington, D.C.
1852: English astronomer John Russell Hind (1823-1895) first observed and charted the asteroid 22 Kalliope, which has a small moon orbiting it.
1904: English engineer John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945) received a patent for the vacuum tube.
1914: The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opened.
1938: LSD was synthesized for the first time by Swiss chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann (1906-2008) at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland.
1965: The Soviet Union launched the Venera 3 space probe toward Venus, which became the first spacecraft to reach the surface of another planet.
1977: Born this day: actress Maggie Gyllenhaal (Nanny McPhee Returns, The Dark Knight); actor Mauricio Ochmann (Message in a Bottle); and actress Gigi Edgley (Quantum Apocalypse.