1919: Twenty-eighth President Woodrow Wilson suffered a massive stroke, leaving him partially paralyzed.
1925: John Logie Baird performed the first test of a working television system at his laboratory in London, England.
1950: Charles M. Schulz’ cartoon Peanuts debuted.
1959: Rod Serling’s The Twilight Zone premiered on CBS television.
1980: The U.S. House of Representatives voted 376-30 to expel Rep. Michael Myers, D-Pa., for accepting a $50,000 bribe from undercover FBI agents. Myers became the first member of either chamber of Congress to be expelled since the Civil War.
1849: American author Edgar Allan Poe was found delirious in a gutter in Baltimore, Md., under mysterious circumstances. It was the last time he was seen in public before his death four days later. (Author John Evangelist Walsh theorized in his book, Midnight Dreary: The Mysterious Death of Edgar Allan Poe, St. Martins Press, copyright 2000, that Poe died after he was ambushed, poisoned with alcohol, drugged, and beaten by the brothers of a wealthy widow to whom Poe was engaged to wed on Oct. 17.)
1863: President Abraham Lincoln declared that Thanksgiving Day is the last Thursday in November.
1872: The first Bloomingdale’s department store opened at 938 Third Ave., New York City.
1903: Dr. Horatio Nelson, the first man to drive across the American continent in an automobile, was arrested in Burlington, Vt., and fined $5 plus court costs, for driving his car faster than 6 mph.
1957: Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and Other Poems was ruled not obscene by the California State Superior Court.
1961: The Dick Van Dyke Show premiered on CBS-TV.
1964: The first Buffalo Wings were made at the Anchor Bar in Buffalo, New York.
1995: O. J. Simpson was acquitted of the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman. The decision set off several days of rioting in Los Angeles.
1535: The first complete English-language Bible (the Coverdale Bible) was printed in London, with translations by William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale.
1582: Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian Calendar, so that in Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year was followed by October 15.
1822: Rutherford Birchard Hayes (19th U.S. president, 1877-1881) was born in Delaware, Ohio.
1876: Texas A&M University opened, becoming the first public institution of higher education in Texas.
1927: Gutzon Borglum began sculpting Mount Rushmore in South Dakota.
1957: Leave It To Beaver premiered on CBS.
1965: Pope Paul VI arrived in New York to become the first Pope to visit the United States of America and the Western hemisphere.
1988: U.S. televangelist Jim Bakker was indicted for fraud.
1997: The second largest cash robbery in U.S. history occurred in Charlotte, N.C., at the office of Loomis, Fargo and Company, when $17.3 million was stolen. (An FBI investigation eventually resulted in 24 convictions; approximately 95 percent of the stolen cash was recovered.)
1829: Chester Alan Arthur (21st U.S. president, 1881-1885) was born in Fairfield, Va.
1857: The city of Anaheim, Calif., was founded.
1877: Chief Joseph surrendered his Nez Perce band to Gen. Nelson A. Miles in Montana near the Canadian border.
1905: Wilbur Wright flew the Wright Flyer III 24 miles over Dayton, Ohio, in 39 minutes, a world record that stood until 1908.
2004: During Chinese National Day Holiday, a multinational group of BASE jumpers (invited by the Shanghai Sports Bureau) leaped from the top of the 1,213-ft-tall Jin Mao Tower, Shanghai’s tallest skyscraper. (Australian jumper Roland “Slim” Simpson, 34, had a parachute malfunction and crashed on an adjacent building. He fell into a coma and died on Oct. 22.)
1539: Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto and his army entered the Apalachee capital of Anhaica (present-day Tallahassee, Florida) by force.
1600: Jacopo Peri’s Euridice, the earliest surviving opera, premiered in Florence, Italy, signifying the beginning of the Baroque period
1683: German immigrants founded Germantown in the colony of Pennsylvania, becoming the first major immigration of German people to America.
1884: The Naval War College of the United States Navy was founded in Newport, Rhode Island.
1889: American inventor Thomas Edison showed his first motion picture in New York City.
1963: Born this day: actor Jsu Garcia (Nightmare on Elm Street), and actress Elisabeth Shue (Karate Kid, Back to the Future Part II).
1995: The sun-like star 51 Pegasi was discovered to be the second major star apart from the sun to have a planet orbiting around it.
2007: English adventurer Jason Lewis completed the first human-powered circumnavigation of the globe.
2014: Teresa Romero, 44, a nurse in Madrid, Spain, became the first person in the world to contract the deadly Ebola virus outside of western Africa. (She contracted it while treating two missionaries who had been flown home to Spain after contracting the disease in West Africa. She made a full recovery.)
1477: Uppsala University, the oldest university in Sweden, opened.
1763: King George III of Great Britain issued the British Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing aboriginal lands in North America north and west of the Allegheny Mountains to white settlements.
1955: Beat Generation poet Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997) performed his poem Howl for the first time at the Six Gallery in San Francisco.
1959: USSR probe Luna 3 transmitted the first ever photographs of the far side of the Moon. 1996: The Fox “News” Channel began broadcasting.
2003: An historic recall election took place in California in which the sitting governor, Gray Davis, a Democrat, was overwhelmingly voted out of office. Actor/bodybuilder and Republican candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger was elected as the 38th governor of California. This was the first recall election in the history of California in which a sitting governor was successfully recalled from office.
2014: Speaking at the United Nations, Choe Myang Nam, a foreign ministry official from North Korea, acknowledged for the first time that his country operates prison camps, which he called “reform through labor” camps … “where people are improved through their mentality and look on their wrongdoings.”
1869: Franklin Pierce, 14th U.S. president, died in Concord, N.H. Pierce is regarded by historians as one of the least known and most historically obscure presidents.
1904: Edmonton, Alberta, and Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, were incorporated as cities.
1974: Franklin National Bank of Long Island, N.Y., collapsed due to fraud and mismanagement. It was the largest bank failure to date in the history of the United States.
1982: Cats opened on Broadway. (The musical play ran for almost 18 years before closing on Sept. 10, 2000.)